Because amygdala cognitive processing causes increased local glucose metabolism, meeting the metabolic requirements of such increased amygdala activation might further diminish the brain’s ability to function optimally at times of reduced glucose availability

Keywords:

One common effect of recurrent hypoglycemia is diminished release of stress hormones during hypoglycemia: increased amygdala responsiveness caused by recurrent hypoglycemia could, perhaps, be a beneficial adaptation that would oppose and attenuate reduced awareness of hypoglycemia. Stress hormones including epinephrine and glucocorticoids are key modulators of cognitive function, and especially of improved performance at times of moderate stress, effects that are transduced via the amygdala; it is hence possible that an increase in amygdala responsiveness may be adaptive in acting to positively modulate other brain regions [in particular, the hippocampus] even when systemic hormone release is attenuated. Importantly, though, one study that examined amygdala metabolism in humans, during hypoglycemia, found that in contrast to the present findings fluorodeoxyglucose uptake was better maintained in the amygdala of aware vs unaware patients; this is in contrast to our data that suggest increased amygdala activity in the recurrent hypoglycemia animals which would be expected to correspond to hypoglycemia-unaware patients. Although there are significant methodological differences as well as a species difference between the studies, this finding does constrain the ability to generalize from the small dataset presented here. It is also true that stress-related hormones, particularly epinephrine, are released when hypoglycemic but such release diminishes after recurrent hypoglycemia: thus, the enhanced anxiety in the recurrent hypoglycemia-hypo group observed here is somewhat paradoxical and the amygdala’s response to stress hormones under such conditions may repay further study.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4653740/

Insulin is NOT a cure

diabetes, insulin

everyday life and adventures with type 1 diabetes

INSULIN. IS. NOT. A. CURE!

Insulin is NOT a cure for diabetes. It is a treatment. A treatment that keeps me alive until we find a cure. I am very, very happy about insulin because without it, I would probably be dead right now but people need to stop thinking that we already found a cure for diabetes.

Insulin is not a cure

I sometimes hear or read, that diabetes can be cured by taking insulin – that is simply a myth. I sometimes also hear people say, that insulin pumps are a cure for diabetes – which is a myth as well. Yes, insulin pumps help managing diabetes, but sadly they “don’t do everything itself” as a lot of people apparently believe. Type 1 diabetes might be manageable, but that doesn’t mean that there’s no need for a cure. Apart from that, insulin prices are increasing and a lot of people don’t even have…

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New story in Politics from Time: Postcard From Germany: Moved For School, Stayed For Insulin

politics , time

The Richardsonian

Every now and then, Katie West considers returning to the U.S. She moved to Germany for graduate school three years ago and now works as a health systems researcher in Hamburg. Her family is an ocean away. Then she remembers why she stays.

West, 30, has had type 1 diabetes since she was three years old. Back in Seattle, where she used to live, she typically paid $70 per month for insulin and another $130 for pump supplies. That was a relative steal in the U.S., made possible by her excellent health insurance, which she got through her employer. But still, it was a financial strain.

In Germany, she pays about ?10, roughly $11. Every three months.

?I don?t ever have to worry,? she says. ?There is not a day I ever have to worry about if I can pay for something, or manage something.?

The price of insulin has…

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